Friday, February 28, 2014

What is Parami? How many Paramis are there? How do they determine the attainment of different types of Bodhi?

Paramis are ‘perfections’ or qualities developed and brought to maturity by Bodhisattas during their past experiences, and they lead to Buddhahood.

There are ten Paramis in the Theravada tradition:
Dana Parami – perfection in giving, generosity
Sila Parami – perfection in virtue, morality
Nekkhamma Parami – renunciation of sensual pleasures
Panna Parami – wisdom, understanding, insight
Viriya Parami – energy, effort (physical and mental)
Khanti Parami – patience, endurance, tolerance, non-violence
Sacca Parami – truthfulness, gentle speech
Adhitthana Parami – resolution, strong determination, will-power
Metta Parami – universal love, loving-kindness, goodwill
Upekkha Parami – equanimity, impartiality

The ten perfections vary in intensity and magnitude with respect to the three different types of Bodhi (enlightenment), ranging from least intense (Arahat) to most intensive (Sammasambodhi). They also vary according to the number of times they are fulfilled, ranging from once (Arahat), twice (Pacceka) to thrice (Sammasambodhi).